Zhao, Xu, et al. “Meta-analysis reveals cyanotoxins risk across African inland waters.” Journal of Hazardous Materials (2023): 131160.

Peter A Thompson, Hans W Paerl, Lisa Campbell, Kedong Yin, Karlie S McDonald, Tropical cyclones: what are their impacts on phytoplankton ecology?, Journal of Plankton Research, Volume 45, Issue 1, January/February 2023, Pages 180–204

Raphael M. Kudela, Meredith D. A. Howard, Stephen Monismith, Hans W. Paerl. – Status, Trends, and Drivers of Harmful Algal Blooms Along the Freshwater-to-Marine Gradient in the San Francisco Bay–Delta System. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science.

Paerl, H.W. and H. Xu. 2022.  Protecting global aquatic resources from the mountains to the sea: growing need for dual nutrient (N and P) input controls along the freshwater-to-marine continuum.  Science Bulletin (in press).

Barnard and Paerl 2022 – Using dilution grazing assays to measure size-fractionated phytoplankton mortality rates across the freshwater-to-marine continuum

Plaas et al. 2022 – Harmful cyanobacterial aerosolization dynamics in the airshed of a eutrophic estuary

Zepernick et al. 2022 – Climate change and the aquatic continuum: A cyanobacterial comeback story – Zepernick – Environmental Microbiology Reports

Lu et al. 2022 water research- Cyanophycin accumulated under nitrogen-fluctuating and high-nitrogen conditions facilitates the persistent dominance and blooms of Raphidiopsis raciborskii in tropical waters

Meerhof et al. Inland waters 2022 – Feedback between climate change and eutrophication: revisiting the allied attack concept and how to strike bac

Meerhoff et al. 2022. Feedbacks between climate change and eutrophication: revisiting the allied attack concept and how to strike back, Inland Waters

Hounshell et al. 2022 – Riverine Discharge and Phytoplankton Biomass Control Dissolved and Particulate Organic Matter Dynamics over Spatial and Temporal Scales in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina

Lu et al.  – Cyanophycin accumulated under nitrogen-fluctuating and high-nitrogen conditions facilitates the persistent dominance and blooms of Raphidiopsis raciborskii in tropical waters

Lu et al. J. Hydrology 2022 – Storm and floods increase the duration and extent of phosphorus limitation on algal blooms in a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

Fang et al. Global Change Biology preprint- 2022 – Fang – Global divergent trends of algal blooms detected by satellite during 1982‐2018


Fang Global Change Biology – 2022 – Fang – Global divergent trends of algal blooms detected by satellite during 1982-2018

Duan Limnology Oceanography – 2021_- Ecological stoichiometry of functional traits in a colonial harmful cyanobacterium

Donis et al LO 2021 – Stratification strength and light climate explain variation in chlorophyll a at the continental scale in a European multilake survey in a heatwave summer

Christensen et al. 2021- Ecosystem-based management for military training, biodiversity, carbon storage and climate resiliency on a complex coastal land/water-scape 

Katin et al 2021- Simulating algal dynamics within a Bayesian framework to evaluate controls on estuary productivity 

Xu et al l&O 2021- Contributions of external nutrient loading and internal cycling to cyanobacterial bloom dynamics in Lake Taihu, China: Implications for nutrient management 

Qin et al., 2021 – Extreme Climate Anomalies Enhancing Cyanobacterial Blooms in Eutrophic Lake Taihu, China 

Duan et al.2021 –Ecological stoichiometry of functional traits in a colonial harmful cyanobacterium  


Paerl & Crosswell CERF’s Up! -Expanding CERF’s Horizon: Synthesizing Human and Climatic Drivers of Change along the Freshwater to Marine Continuum  


Roles of Nutrient Limitation on Western Lake Erie CyanoHAB Toxin Production_Barnard et al. 2021 Toxins

Elevated organic carbon pulses persist in estuarine environment after major storm events_Asmala et al L&O 2020

Shifting states, shifting services: Linking regime shifts to changes in ecosystem services of shallow lakes_Janssen et al fwb. 2020

Plaas and Paerl ES&T cyanotoxin review – 2020

Tackling Harmful Cyanobacterial Blooms with Chinese Colleagues: We’re All in  the Same Boat – 2020

Mitigating the global expansion of harmful cyanobacterial blooms: Moving targets in a human- and climatically-altered world, Harmful Algae- 2020

Improvement in municipal wastewater treatment alters lake nitrogen to phosphorus ratios in populated regions, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA- 2020

The global Microcystis interactome, Limnology and Oceanography- 2020

Perspective: Advancing the research agenda for improving understanding of cyanobacteria in a future of global change, Harmful Algae- 2020

Use of Geospatial, Hydrologic, and Geochemical Modeling to Determine the Influence of Wetland-Derived Organic Matter in Coastal Waters in Response to Extreme Weather Events- Frontiers in Marine Science- 2020

Nutrient addition bioassay and phytoplankton community structure monitored during autumn in Xiangxi Bay of Three Gorges Reservoir, China- Chemosphere- 2020


Nitrogen transformations differentially affect nutrient-limited primary production in lakes of varying trophic state, Limnology and Oceanography Letters- 2019

Feedback Regulation between Aquatic Microorganisms and the Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, Applied and Environmental Microbiology- 2019

Why Lake Taihu continues to be plagued with cyanobacterial blooms through 10 years (2007–2017) efforts- Science Bulletin- 2019

A study of bioavailable phosphorus in the inflowing rivers of Lake Taihu, China- Aquatic Sciences- 2019

Mitigating eutrophication and toxic cyanobacterial blooms in large lakes: The evolution of a dual nutrient (N and P) reduction paradigm- Hydrobiologia- 2019

Climate exerts a greater modulating effect on the phytoplankton community after 2007 in eutrophic Lake Taihu, China: Evidence from 25 years of recordings- Ecological Indicators- 2019

Long-term trends, current status, and transitions of water quality in Chesapeake Bay- Scientific Reports- 2019

Perspective: Advancing the research agenda for improving understanding of cyanobacteria in a future of global change- Harmful Algae- 2019

Recent increase in catastrophic tropical cyclone flooding in coastal North Carolina, USA: Long-term observations suggest a regime shift- Scientific Reports- 2019

Cyanobacteria in eutrophic waters benefit from rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations- Science of the Total Environment-2019

Nutrients, eutrophication and harmful algal blooms along the freshwater to marine continuum- Wires Water-2019

Future HAB science: Directions and challenges in a changing climate- Harmful Algae-2019

Mitigating a global expansion of toxic cyanobacterial blooms, confounding effects and challenges posed by climate change- CSIRO Publishing-2019

Nitrogen fixation does not automatically lead to phosphorus limitation in aquatic ecosystems-OIKOS 2019

Lingering Carbon Cycle Effects of Hurricane Matthew-AGU100 2019

Extreme weather events modulate processing and export of dissolved-Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2019

Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of different forms-Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2019


Flood-driven CO2 emissions from adjacent North Carolina estuaries during-Marine Chemistry 2018

Why does N-limitation persist in the world’s marine waters- Marine Chemistry 2018

Two decades of tropical cyclone impacts on North Carolina’s estuarine carbon, nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics implications for biogeochemical cycling and water quality in a stormier world- Biogeochem 2018-

Nitrogen fixation does not axiomatically lead to phosphorus limitation in aquatic ecosystems-Oikos 2018

CO2 limited conditions favor cyanobacteria in a hypereutrophic lake-Limnology and Oceanography 2018

Extreme weather event may induce Microcystis blooms in the Qiantang River, Southeast China-Environmental Science and Pollution 2018

Cyanobacterial Blooms_NatureRM2018_earlyonline

Temperature Effects Explain Continental Scale Distribution of Cyanobacterial Toxins- Toxins 2018.pdf (please send request for this paper)

CyanoHABs along Continuum 2018-Mitigating the Expansion of Harmful Algal Blooms Across the Freshwater-to-Marine Continuum- Environmental Science & Technology 2018

The impact of flooding on aquatic ecosystem services- Biogeochemistry 2018

CO2 limited conditions favor cyanobacteria in a hypereutrophic lake, An empirical and theoretical stable isotope study-Limnology and Oceanography 2018

Watershed-Scale Drivers of Air-Water CO2 Exchanges in Two Lagoonal North Carolina (USA) Estuaries-Journal of Geophysical Research 2018

Eukaryotic phytoplankton community spatiotemporal dynamics as identified through gene expression within a eutrophic estuary-Environmental_Microbiology 2018

Mitigating Toxic Planktonic Cyanobacterial Blooms in Aquatic Ecosystems Facing Increasing Anthropogenic and Climatic Pressures-Toxins 2018


Controlling cyanobacterial harmful blooms in freshwater ecosystems-Microbial Biotechnology 2017

Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a climatically more extreme world management options and research needs-Journal of Plankton Research 2017

Evidence for the Importance of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition to Eutrophic Lake Dianchi, China-Environmental Science & Technology 2017

Formation of Low-Molecular-Weight Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Predenitrification Biological Nutrient Removal Systems and Its Impact on Eutrophication in Coastal Waters-Environmental Science & Technology 2017

Stimulation of Phytoplankton Production by Anthropogenic Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in a Coastal Plain Estuary-Environmental Science & Technology 2017

The cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation paradox in natural waters-F1000 Research 2017

The molecular ecology of Microcystis sp. blooms in the San Francisco Estuary-Environmental Microbiology 2017

Allelopathy_Cyanobacteria-Allelopathic interactions of linoleic acid and nitric oxide increase the competitive ability of Microcystis aeruginosa-The ISME Journal 2017

Carbon budget of a shallow, lagoonal estuary Transformations and source-sink dynamics along the river-estuary-ocean continuum-Limnology & Oceanography 2017

Climate Change Impacts on Harmful Algal Blooms in U.S. Freshwaters A Screening-Level Assessment-Environmental Science & Technology 2017

Community Biological Ammonium Demand A Conceptual Model for Cyanobacteria Blooms in Eutrophic Lakes-Environmental Science & Technology 2017


Impacts of Climate Change on Cyanobacteria in Aquatic Environments-Climate Change and Microbial Ecology_chapter_1_2016

It takes two to tango Environmrntal Science & Technology 2016

Long-term nutrient trends and harmful cyanobacterial bloom potential in hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China-Hydrobiologia 2016

Mitigating cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms in aquatic ecosystems impacted by climate change and anthropogenic nutrients-Harfmful Algae 2016

Mitigating harmful cyanobacterial blooms strategies for control of nitrogen and phosphorus loads-Aquat Ecol 2016

Molecular insights into a dinoflagellate bloom-The ISME Journal 2016

Moving towards adaptive management of cyanotoxin-impaired water bodies-Microbial_Biotechnology 2016

Predicting Sources of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen to an Estuary from an Agro-Urban Coastal Watershed-Environmental Science & Technology

Variable climatic conditions dominate recent phytoplankton dynamics in Chesapeake Bay-Nature Reports 2016

A review of the Global ecology, genomics and biogeography of the toxic cyanobacterium, Mycrocystis spp.-Harmful Algae 2016

Duelling ‘CyanoHABs’ unravelling the environmental drivers controlling dominance and succession among diazotrophic and non-N2-fixing harmful cyanobacteria-Environmental Microbiology 2016

Dynamic, mechanistic, molecular-level modelling of cyanobacteria Anabaena and nitrogen interaction-Environmental_Microbiology 2016

EffectsofNitrogenAvailabilityandFormon PhytoplanktonGrowthinaEutrophied Estuary(NeuseRiverEstuary,NC,USA)-PLOS one 2016

Extreme Weather Events and Climate Variability Provide a Lens to How Shallow Lakes May Respond to Climate Change-Wtare 2016

Global solutions to regional problems, Collecting global expertise to address the problem of harmful cyanobacterial blooms. A lake Erie case study-Harmful Algae 2016

How rising CO2 and global warming may stimulate harmful cyanobacterial blooms-Harmful algae 2016


Mesozooplankton abundance in relation to the chlorophyll maximum- ECSS 2015

Nutrient limitation dynamics examined on a multi-annual scale in Lake Taihu, China implications for controlling eutrophication and harmful algal blooms-JFE 2015

The persistence of cyanobacterial (Microcystis spp.) blooms throughout winter in Lake Taihu, China- L&O 2015

Vertical spatio-temporal patterns of Phytoplankton due to migration behaviors in two shallow, microtidal estuaries, influence on phytoplankton and structure-ECSS 2015

Controlling Harmful Cyanobacteria Blooms in the Face of Climate Change- Lakeline 2015

Determining Critical Nutrient Thresholds Needed to Control Harmful Cyanobacterial Blooms in Eutrophic Lake Taihu, China-ES&T 2015

Harmful Algal Blooms-Freshwater Algae of North America, W&S Chapter 20

Havens and Paerl 2015 ES&T Climate Change Blooms-Climate Change at a Crossroad for Control of Harmful Algal Blooms

Health Effects of Toxic Cyanobacteria in U.S. Drinking and Recreational Waters Our Current Understanding and Proposed Direction-EHR_2015

Long-Term Trends of Nutrients and Phytoplankton in Chesapeake Bay- Chesapeake Trends paper 2015


Effects of Nutrients, Temperature and Their Interactions on Spring Phytoplankton Community Succession in Lake Taihu, China-Plos One 2014

Environmental factors controlling colony formation in blooms of the cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. in Lake Taihu, China- Harmful Algae 2014

Evolving Paradigms and Challenges in Estuarine and Coastal- E&C 2014

Extensive CO2 emissions from shallow coastal waters during passage of Hurricane Irene (August 2011) over the Mid-Atlantic Coast of the U.S.A.-L&O 2014

Green algal over cyanobacterial dominance promoted with nitrogen and phosphorus additions in a mesocosm study at Lake Taihu, China-Environmental Pollution Res 2014

Mitigating Harmful Cyanobacterial Blooms in a Human- and Climatically-Impacted World-Life 2014

Optical and chemical characterization of base-extracted particulate- Marine Chemistry 2014

Scientific Bases for Numerical Chlorophyll Criteria- E&C 2014

Seasonal Changes in sturine dissolved organic matter due to variable flushing time and wind-driven mixing events-EC&SS 2014

The role of tropical cyclones in stimulating cyanobacterial (Microcystis spp.) blooms in hyertrophic Lake Taihu- Harmful Algae 2014

When a Hurricane Burps an Estuary-Endeavours 2014

A study of anthropogenic and climatic disturbance of the New River- Marine Pollution Bulletin (83) 2014

Algal blooms Noteworthy nitrogen-Science-2014

Alternative Stable States in Lareg Shallow Lakes-JGLR 2014

Comment on Bachmann et al. (2013) A nonrepresentative sample cannot describe the extent of cultural eutrophication of natural lakes in the United States-L&O 2014

Controlling Cyanobacterial Blooms in Hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China Will Nitrogen Reductions Cause Replacement of Non-N2 Fixing by N2 Fixing Taxa- PLOS One 2014

Earlier and warmer springs increase blooms in Taihu-Freshwater Biology(59) 2014

Response to comments Quantification of the extent of cultural eutrophication of natural lakes in the United States-L&O 2014

Smith et al. 2014 – Comment on Bachmann no eutrophication-Comment Cultural eutrophication of natural lakes in the United States is real and widespread


Growth response of Microcystis spp. to iron enrichment- Hydrobiologia 2013

Hydrologic Variability and Its Control of Phytoplankton- E&C 2013

Blooms Bite the Hand That- Science Perspective 2013

Comment An alternative interpretation of the relationship-NRC Research Press 2013

Estuarine Phytoplankton-estuarine ecology_Ch 4 2013


Air-water CO2 fluxes in the microtidal Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina-Journal of Geophysical Research 2012

Climate Change, Links to Global Expansion of Harmful Bacteria-Water Research 2012

Comment An alternative interpretation of the relationship between TN to TP and Microcystins in Canadian Lakes- NRC Research Press 2012

Composition of inorganic and organic nutrient sources-Aquatic ecology 2012

Effects of climatic variability on phytoplankton community structure and bloom- Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2012

Fluorescence Tracking of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Matter-ES&T 2012

Harmful Cyanobacterial Blooms Causes, Consequences,and Controls-Microb Ecology 2012

Non-monotonic Responses of Phytoplankton Biomas Accumulation to Hydrologic Variability; A Comparison of Two Coastal Plain North Carolina Estuaries- E&C 2012

Spatiotemporal Patterns and Ecophysiology of Toxigenic Microcystis Blooms in Lake Taihu, China Implications for Water Quality Management-ES&T 2012

Evaluation of Progress in Achieving TMDL-EM 2012


Allied attack climate change and eutrophication-ISL 2011

China Aims to Turn Tide Against-Taihu Science article 2011

Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a hyper-eutrophic lake (Lake Taihu, China); The need for a dual nutrient (N&P) management strategy- water research 2011

Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a world experiencing anthropogenic and climatic-induced change -STOTEN 2011

Determining the potential for the proliferation of the harmful cyanobacterium-Harmful Algae 2011

Facultative diazotrophy increases Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii competitiveness under fluctuating nitrogen availability-FEMSEC 2011

MERIS Retrieval of Water Quality Components in the Turbid Albemarle-Pamlico Sound Estuary, USA-Remote Sensing 2011

Nutrients in precipitation and the phytoplankton responses to enrichment in surface waters of the Albemarle Peninsula,NC, USA after the establishment of a large-scale chicken egg farm-Hydrobiologia-2011

Phylogenetic Inference of Colony Isolates Comprising Seasonal Microcystis Blooms in Lake Taihu, China-ME 2011

Primary Producers Phytoplankton Ecology and Trophic Dynamics-Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal ESCO_Coastal phytoplankton 2011

Rationale for Control of Anthropogenic Nitrogen and Phosphorus to Reduce Eutrophication of Inland Waters- ES&T 2011

Reactive Nitrogen in the United States; An Analysis of Inputs, Flows, Consquenses, and Management Options-EPA Report 2011

Structural and functional responses of microbial mats to reductions in nutient and salinity stressors in a Bahamian hypersaline laggon-Aquat Microb Ecol 2011

The relationships between nutrients, cyanobacterial toxins and the microbial community in Taihu (Lake Taihu), China- Harmful Algae 2011

Vertical migration patterns of phytoflagellates in-MEPS 2011


Assessing the Response of the Pamlico Sound, North Acrolina, USA to Human and Climatic Disturbances management implications- Pamlico Sound Lagoonal Chapter 2

Environmental Dynamics, Community Structure and function in a hypersaline Microbial mat-Microbial Mats 2010

Nitrogen and phosphorus inputs control phytoplankton growth in eutrophic Lake Tahiu, China-L&O 2010

Picophytoplankton A major contributor to planktonic biomass and primary production in a eutrophic, river-dominated esturay.ecss 2010

Throwing Fuel on the Fire; Synergistic Effects of Eccesive Nitrogen Inputs and Global Warming on Harmful Alga; Blooms -EST Viewpoint 2010


A Drinking Water Crisis in Lake Taihu, China; Linkage to Climatic Variability and Lake Management- Environmental Management 2009

Controlling Eutrophication along the Freshwater–Marine Continuum; Dual nutrient (N and P) Reductions are Essential-E&C 2009

Controlling Eutrophication by Reducing Both Nitrogen And Phosphorus-Science 2009

Experimental analysis of the response and recovery of Zostera marina (L.) and Halodule wrightii (Ascher.) to repeated light-limitation stress-Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 369 (2009)

FerryMon; Ferry Based Monitoring and Assesment of Human and Climatically Driven Environmental Change in the Albamarle-Pamlico Sound System-E,S&T 2009

Phytoplankton Community Indicators of Short- and Longterm Longterm Ecological Change in the Anthropogenically and Climatically Impacted Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA- E&C 2009


Blooms Like It Hot- Science

Co-occurrence of dinoflagellate and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms in southwest Florida coastal waters dual nutrient (N and P) input controls-Marine Ecology Progress Series

Ecological Responses of the Neuse River–Pamlico Sound Estuarine Continuum to a Period of Elevated Hurricane Activity; Impacts of Individual Storms and Longer-Term Trends-AFS Symp manuscript

Environmental Factors Contributing to the Development and Demise of a Toxic Dinoflagellate (Karlodinium veneficum) Bloom in a Shallow, Eutrophic, Lagoonal Estuary -E&S2008

Global expansion of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in water supplies due to human development and climate change.- sustainable drinking water symp. 08

Molecular Ecological Aspects of Nitrogen Fixation in the Marine Environment-Microbial Ecology of the Oceans_ch13_2nd

Nitrogen and Marine Eutrophication-Nitrogen in the Environment -chapter 11 2008


Application of Bayesian Structural equation modeling for examining phytoplankton dynamics in the Neuse Rive Estuary (North Carolina, USA)- Esturine Coastal and SHelf Science 2007

Importance of Submarine Groundwater Discharge as a Source of Nutrients for the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina-Fear et al., Estuaries & Coasts U2007_30_6_1027_1033

Morphological and Genetic Evidence that the Cyanobacterium-Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2007

Nutrient and other environmental controls of harmful cyanobacterial-ISOCHAB_ch_10_paerl

Phytoplankton Indicators of Ecological Change in the Eutrophying Pamlico Sound System, NorthCarolina-ecological applications 07